The premise: each time a certain API method is called within a Flask / SQLAlchemy app (a method that primarily involves saving something to the database), send various notifications, e.g. log to the standard logger, and send an email to site admins. However, the way the API works, is that several different methods can be forced to run in a single DB transaction, by specifying that SQLAlchemy only perform a commit when the last method is called. Ideally, no notifications should actually get triggered until the DB transaction has been successfully committed; and when the commit has finished, the notifications should trigger in the order that the API methods were called.
There are various possible solutions that can accomplish this, for example: a celery task queue, an event scheduler, and a synchronised / threaded queue. However, those are all fairly heavy solutions to this problem, because we only need a queue that runs inside one thread, and that lives for the duration of a single DB transaction (and therefore also only for a single request).
To solve this problem, I implemented a very lightweight function queue, where each queue is a deque instance, that lives inside flask.g, and that is therefore available for the duration of a given request context (or app context).
The aim of this app is to demonstrate that, with the help of modern JS libraries, and with some well-thought-out server-side snippets, it's now perfectly possible to "bake in" live in-place editing for virtually every content element in a typical brochureware site.
This app is not a CMS. On the contrary, think of it as a proof-of-concept alternative to a CMS. An alternative where there's no "admin area", there's no "editing mode", and there's no "preview button". There's only direct manipulation.
"Template" means that this is a sample app. It comes with a bunch of models that work out-of-the-box (e.g. text content block, image content block, gallery item, event). However, these are just a starting point: you can and should define your own models when building a real site. Same with the front-end templates: the home page layout and the CSS styles are just examples.
I'd never before stopped to think about whether or not there was a limit to how much you can put in a cookie. Usually, cookies only store very small string values, such as a session ID, a tracking code, or a browsing preference (e.g. "tile" or "list" for search results). So, usually, there's no need to consider its size limits.
However, while working on a new side project of mine that heavily uses session storage, I discovered this limit the hard (to debug) way. Anyway, now I've got one more adage to add to my developer's phrasebook: if you're trying to store more than 4KiB in a cookie, you're doing it wrong.
Flask is still a relative newcomer in the world of Python frameworks (it recently celebrated its fifth birthday); and because of this, it's still sometimes trailing behind its rivals in terms of plugins to scratch a given itch. I recently discovered that this was the case, with storing and retrieving user-uploaded files on Amazon S3.
For static files (i.e. an app's seldom-changing CSS, JS, and images), Flask-Assets and Flask-S3 work together like a charm. For more dynamic files, there exist numerous snippets of solutions, but I couldn't find anything to fill in all the gaps and tie it together nicely.
Due to a pressing itch in one of my projects, I decided to rectify this situation somewhat. Over the past few weeks, I've whipped up a bunch of Python / Flask tidbits, to handle the features that I needed:
I've also published an example app, that demonstrates how all these tools can be used together. Feel free to dive straight into the example code on GitHub; or read on for a step-by-step guide of how this Flask S3 tool suite works.
For a Flask-based project that I'm currently working on, I just added some front-end functionality that depends on Font Awesome. Getting Font Awesome to load properly (in well-behaved modern browsers) shouldn't be much of a chore. However, my app spans multiple subdomains (achieved with the help of Flask's Blueprints per-subdomain feature), and my static assets (CSS, JS, etc) are only served from one of those subdomains. And as it turns out (and unlike cross-domain CSS / JS / image requests), cross-domain font requests are forbidden unless the font files are served with an appropriate Access-Control-Allow-Origin HTTP response header. For example, this is the error message that's shown in Google Chrome for such a request:
Font from origin 'http://foo.local' has been blocked from loading by Cross-Origin Resource Sharing policy: No 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header is present on the requested resource. Origin 'http://bar.foo.local' is therefore not allowed access.
As a result of this, I had to quickly learn how to conditionally add custom HTTP response headers based on the URL being requested, both for Flask (when running locally with Flask's built-in development server), and for Apache (when running in staging and production). In a typical production Flask setup, it's impossible to do anything at the Python level when serving static files, because these are served directly by the web server (e.g. Apache, Nginx), without ever hitting WSGI. Conversely, in a typical development setup, there is no web server running separately to the WSGI app, and so playing around with static files must be done at the Python level.
My recent hobby hack-together, my photo cleanup tool FotoJazz, required me getting my hands dirty with threads for the first time (in Python or otherwise). Threads allow you to run a task in the background, and to continue doing whatever else you want your program to do, while you wait for the (usually long-running) task to finish (that's one definition / use of threads, anyway — a much less complex one than usual, I dare say).
However, if your program hasn't got much else to do in the meantime (as was the case for me), threads are still very useful, because they allow you to report on the progress of a long-running task at the UI level, which is better than your task simply blocking execution, leaving the UI hanging, and providing no feedback.
As part of coding up FotoJazz, I developed a re-usable architecture for running batch processing tasks in a thread, and for reporting on the thread's progress in both a web-based (AJAX-based) UI, and in a shell UI. This article is a tour of what I've developed, in the hope that it helps others with their thread progress monitoring needs in Python or in other languages.
I am at times quite a prolific photographer. Particularly when I'm travelling, I tend to accumulate quite a quantity of digital snaps (although am still working on the quality of said snaps). I'm also a reasonably organised and systematic person: as such, I've developed a workflow for fixing up, naming and archiving my soft-copy photos; and I've also come to depend on a variety of scripts and little apps, that perform various steps of the workflow for me.
Sadly, my system has had some disadvantages. Most importantly, there are too many separate scripts / apps involved, and with too many different interfaces (mix of manual point-and-click, drap-and-drop, and command-line). Ideally, I'd like all the functionality unified in one app, with one streamlined graphical interface (and also everything with equivalent shell access). Also, my various tools are platform-dependent, with most of them being Windows-based, and one being *nix-based. I'd like everything to be platform-independent, and in particular, I'd like everything to run best on Linux — as I'm trying to do as much as possible on Ubuntu these days.
Plus, I felt in the mood for getting my hands dirty coding up the photo-management app of my dreams. Hence, it is with pleasure that I present FotoJazz, a browser-based (plus shell-accessible) tool built with Python and Flask.